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Screening and Early Detection

Screening and early detection is screening for cancer in its earliest stage when treatment works best.

Screening tests are available for lung, colorectal, breast, prostate, and cervical cancer. Each cancer type has recommendations for when to start screening and the frequency. By screening for cancers that have a screening test, it can be caught in an earlier stage.

By increasing cancer screenings for these cancer types based on current recommendations and identifying individuals who may be more at risk for some cancers can reduce a late-stage cancer diagnosis. This can help reduce the cancer mortality rate.

The screening and early detection goals are:

  1. Increase cancer screening
  2. Reduce late-stage cancer diagnosis
  3. Reduce cancer mortality rates

Increase Cancer Screening

  • Objective 1: Increase lung cancer screening among adults 50-80 years of age from 6.3% to 6.9% by 2027 (American Lung Association 2019).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 7.5%
  • Objective 2: Increase colorectal cancer screening among adults 45-75 years of age from 66.7% to 73.4% by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 74.4%
  • Objective 3: Increase breast cancer screening among females 40 years and older from 73.1% to 80.4% by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 77.1%
  • Objective 4: Increase prostate cancer screening among Hispanic males 50-69 years of age from 17.3% to 19.0% by 2027 (BRFSS 2018).
  • Objective 4.1: Increase prostate cancer screening among Black Non-Hispanic males 50-69 years of age from 29.4% to 32.3% by 2027 (BRFSS 2018).
  • Objective 5: Increase cervical cancer screening among females 21-65 years of age from 69.1% to 76.0% by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 84.3%

Strategies

Policy Strategies

  • Work with partners, community organizations and businesses to implement policies to reduce client out-of-pocket costs and structural barriers to screening (e.g., mobile mammography vans, transportation, and child care)

System Strategies

  • Create a resource guide for uninsured and underinsured individuals to promote screening
  • Advocate to increase providers and community education of awareness on the up-to-date cancer screening guidelines
  • Promote the Illinois Breast and Cervical Cancer Program (IBCCP) to all eligible women
  • Utilize quality improvement strategies to analyze and to improve current screening policies and procedures
  • Utilize current USPSTF and other nationally recognized guidelines
  • Engage state and federal partners, such as Illinois Primary Health Care Association (IPHCA) and federally qualified health centers (FQHCs), to increase the use of proven colorectal colon cancer screening tests, specifically in clinical settings
  • Educate providers about the effectiveness of stool-based testing for those at average risk of developing colon cancer
  • Engage stakeholders in identifying gaps in lung cancer screening
  • Identify appropriate evidence-based interventions to increase availability and access to lung cancer screenings
  • Educate providers about how to recognize ovarian cancer signs and symptoms and how to diagnose the presence of ovarian cancer through blood, imaging, and tissue tests
  • Promote and encourage the participation in regional and statewide cancer coalitions

Environmental Changes Strategies

  • Provide group education to increase community demand for cancer screening services
  • Provide one-on-one education to increase community demand for cancer screening services
  • The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults aged 50-80 years who have a 20-pack-a-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years

Health Equity Strategies

  • Advocate for patient navigation to address social determinants of health and barriers to access to care (lack of transportation, cost, lack of insurance, etc.)
  • Develop and disseminate materials for informing, raising awareness, and educating community members on cancer screening that are culturally appropriate and accessible for people of varying literacy levels
  • Advocate for targeted outreach and screening for minority high-risk populations, utilizing cancer incidence, mortality, and late-stage diagnosis data to prioritize high-risk communities and population
  • Raise awareness on racial and ethnic disparities for cancer screenings
  • Advocate for health care providers, community education, and awareness for:
    • Prostate cancer screening among minority population (Hispanic and Black males)
    • Breast cancer screening among minority population (Black females)
    • Colorectal cancer screening among minority population (Black adults)
    • Cervical cancer screening among minority population (Hispanic and Black females)
  • Provide focused education to underrepresented populations through community partnerships
  • Provide focused ovarian cancer awareness and education to women in rural and medically underserved areas with health care professional shortages through community partnerships

Reduce Late-Stage Cancer Diagnosis

  • Objective 1: Reduce late-stage lung and bronchus cancer diagnosis from 45.4% to 40.9% among adults 50 years and older by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2013-2017).
  • Objective 2: Reduce late-stage colorectal cancer diagnosis from 24.1% rate to 21.7% among all ages of adults by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2013-2017).
  • Objective 3: Reduce late-stage breast cancer diagnosis from 45.6% to 41.0% among females of all ages by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2013-2017).
  • Objective 4: Reduce late-stage prostate cancer diagnosis from 24.0% to 21.6% among males ages 50 years and older by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2013-2017).
  • Objective 5: Reduce late-stage cervical cancer diagnosis from 3.8% to 3.4% among females 21-65 years of age by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2013-2017).

Strategies

Policy Strategies

  • Work with partners, community organizations, and businesses to implement policies to reduce client out-of-pocket costs and structural barriers to screening (e.g., mobile mammography vans, transportation, and child care)

System Strategies

  • Create a resource guide for uninsured and underinsured individuals to promote screening
  • Promote genetic counseling, testing and establish a means of getting access to it
  • Support and encourage the use of family history assessments and genetic testing for colorectal cancer (i.e., Lynch syndrome), breast cancer, and ovarian cancer
  • Advocate to increase providers and community education of awareness on up-to-date cancer screening guidelines
  • Promote IBCCP to all eligible women
  • Utilize Quality Improvement to analyze and to improve current screening policies and procedures
  • Advocate for health care providers and community education and awareness on late-stage cancer diagnoses, including breast, prostate, lung, colorectal, cervical, and ovarian cancers
  • Utilize current USPSTF and other nationally recognized guidelines
  • Engage state and federal partners, such as IPHCA and FQHCs, to increase the use of proven colorectal colon cancer screening tests, specifically in clinical settings
  • Educate providers about the effectiveness of stool-based testing for those at average risk of developing colon cancer
  • Identify appropriate evidence-based interventions to increase availability and access to lung cancer screenings
  • Educate providers about how to recognize ovarian cancer signs and symptoms and how to diagnose the presence of ovarian cancer through blood, imaging, and tissue tests
  • Promote and encourage the participation in regional and statewide cancer coalitions

Environmental Changes Strategies

  • Provide group education to increase community demand for cancer screening services
  • Provide one-on-one education to increase community demand for cancer screening services

Health Equity Strategies

  • Advocate for patient navigation to address social determinants of health and barriers to access to care (lack of transportation, cost, lack of insurance, etc.)
  • Advocate for targeted outreach and screening for minority high-risk populations by utilizing cancer incidence, mortality, and late-stage diagnosis data to prioritize high-risk communities and populations
  • Develop and disseminate materials for informing, raising awareness, and educating community members on cancer screening that are culturally appropriate and accessible for people of varying literacy levels
  • Raise awareness on racial and ethnic disparities for cancer screenings
  • Provide focused education to underrepresented populations through community partnerships
  • Provide focused ovarian cancer awareness and education to women in rural and medically underserved areas with health care professional shortages through community partnerships

Reduce Cancer Mortality Rates

  • Objective 1: Reduce the lung and bronchus cancer mortality rate from 41.1 to 38.5 among adults 50-80 years of age by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2014-2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 25.1 per 100,000
  • Objective 2: Reduce the colon and rectum cancer mortality rate from 14.7 to 13.7 among adults 50-75 years of age by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2014-2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 8.9 per 100,000
  • Objective 3: Reduce the breast cancer mortality rate from 21.0 to 20.1 among females 45 years and older by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2014-2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 15.3 per 100,000
  • Objective 4: Reduce the prostate cancer mortality rate from 20.0 to 19.0 among males 45 years and older by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2014-2018).
    Healthy People 2030 Target: 16.9 per 100,000
  • Objective 5: Reduce the cervical cancer mortality rate from 2.3 to 2.2 among females 21-65 years of age by 2027 (State Cancer Profiles 2014-2018).

Strategies

Policy Strategies

  • Work with partners, community organizations, and businesses to implement policies to reduce client out-of-pocket costs and structural barriers to screening (e.g., mobile mammography vans, transportation, and child care)
  • Raise awareness of the need to remove out-of-pocket costs patients may receive if polyps were removed during their screening colonoscopy for Illinois privately insured and Medicaid beneficiaries
  • Remove the loop-hole billing and out-of-pocket costs for colorectal cancer diagnostic testing

System Strategies

  • Promote genetic counseling, testing, and establish a means of getting access to it
  • Support and encourage the use of family history assessments and genetic testing for colorectal cancer (i.e., Lynch syndrome), breast cancer, and ovarian cancer
  • Advocate to increase providers and community education of awareness on up-to-date cancer screening guidelines
  • Promote IBCCP to all eligible women
  • Utilize quality improvement strategies to analyze and to improve current screening policies and procedures
  • Utilize current USPSTF and other nationally recognized guidelines
  • Engage state and federal partners, such as IPHCA and FQHCs, to increase the use of proven colorectal colon cancer screening tests, specifically in clinical settings
  • Educate providers about the effectiveness of stool-based testing for those at average risk of developing colon cancer
  • Engage stakeholders in identifying gaps in lung cancer screening
  • Identify and implement appropriate evidence-based interventions to increase availability and access to lung cancer screenings
  • Educate providers about how to recognize ovarian cancer signs and symptoms and how to diagnose the presence of ovarian cancer through blood, imaging, and tissue tests

Environmental Changes Strategies

  • Provide group education to increase community demand for cancer screening services
  • Provide one-on-one education to increase community demand for cancer screening services

Health Equity Strategies

  • Advocate for patient navigation to address social determinants of health and barriers to access to care (lack of transportation, cost, lack of insurance, etc.)
  • Develop and disseminate culturally and health literacy sensitive materials for informing, raising awareness, and educating community members on cancer screening
  • Advocate for targeted outreach and screening for minority high-risk populations, utilizing cancer incidence, mortality, and late-stage diagnosis data to prioritize high-risk communities and populations
  • Raise awareness on racial and ethnic disparities for cancer screenings
  • Advocate for health care providers, community education, and awareness for:
    • Prostate cancer screening among minority population (Hispanic and Black males)
    • Breast cancer screening among minority population (Black females)
    • Colorectal cancer screening among minority population (Black adults)
    • Cervical cancer screening among minority population (Hispanic and Black females)
  • Provide focused education to underrepresented populations through community partnerships
  • Utilize community partnerships to provide focused ovarian cancer awareness and education to women in rural and medically underserved areas with health care professional shortages