The following interim guidance may help prevent workplace exposures to acute respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19, in non-health care settings. The guidance also provides planning considerations in the event of widespread, community outbreaks of COVID-19.
To prevent stigma and discrimination in the workplace, use only the guidance described below to determine risk of COVID-19. Do not make risk determinations based on race or country of origin and be sure to maintain confidentiality of people with confirmed COVID-19. There is much more to learn about the transmissibility, severity, and other features of COVID-19 and investigations are ongoing.
Recommended strategies for employers to use now
Actively encourage sick employees to stay home:
- Employees who are sick and have respiratory symptoms, such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath, should remain home unless in need of medical attention. These individuals can be around others after they have stayed at home for at least 3 days with no fever and symptoms improved and it has been 10 days since symptoms first appeared.
- Ensure your sick leave policy is flexible and consistent with public health guidance and employees are aware of the policy.
- Talk with companies that provide your business with contract or temporary employees about the importance of sick employees staying home and encourage them to develop non-punitive leave policies.
- Do not require a health care provider’s note for employees who are sick with acute respiratory illness to validate their illness or to return to work, as health care provider offices and medical facilities may be busy and not able to provide timely documentation.
- Employers should maintain flexible policies that permit employees to stay home to care for a sick family member. Employers should be aware that more employees may need to stay at home to care for sick children or other sick family members than is usual.
Separate sick employees:
- IDPH recommends employees who appear to have acute respiratory illness symptoms (i.e., cough, shortness of breath) upon arrival to work or become sick during the day should be separated from other employees and be sent home immediately. Sick employees should cover their noses and mouths with a tissue when coughing or sneezing (or an elbow or shoulder if no tissue is available).
Emphasize employees should stay home when sick, practice respiratory etiquette, and frequently wash hands.
- Place posters that encourage staying home when sick, cough and sneeze etiquette, and hand hygiene at the entrance to the workplace and in other workplace areas where they are likely to be seen.
- Provide tissues and no-touch disposal receptacles for employee use.
- Instruct employees to clean their hands often with an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60 percent alcohol or wash their hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds. Soap and water should be used preferentially if hands are visibly dirty.
- Provide soap and water and alcohol-based hand rubs in the workplace and ensure adequate supplies are maintained. Place hand rubs in multiple locations or in conference rooms to encourage hand hygiene.
- Visit the coughing and sneezing etiquette and clean hands webpage for more information.
Perform routine environmental cleaning
- Regularly clean frequently touched surfaces, such as workstations, countertops, and doorknobs. Use cleaning agents typically used in these areas and follow the label directions.
- Provide disposable wipes so commonly used surfaces (e.g., doorknobs, keyboards, remote controls, desks) can be wiped down by employees before each use.
Advise employees before traveling to take certain steps
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) recommends all nonessential international travel be avoided. Check CDC’s Traveler’s Health Notices for the latest guidance and recommendations.
- Advise employees to check themselves for symptoms of acute respiratory illness before starting travel and to notify their supervisor and stay home if they are sick.
- Ensure employees who become sick while traveling or on temporary assignment understand they should notify their supervisor and, if needed, call a health care provider for advice.
- If outside the United States, sick employees should follow your company’s policy for obtaining medical care or contact a health care provider or overseas medical assistance company to assist with finding an appropriate health care provider. A U.S. consular officer can help locate health care services. However, U.S. embassies, consulates, and military facilities do not have the legal authority, capability, and resources to evacuate or give medicines, vaccines, or medical care to private U.S. citizens overseas.
Additional Measures in Response to Currently Occurring Sporadic Importations of the COVID-19
- Employees who are well but who have a sick family member at home with COVID-19 should notify their supervisor and refer to CDC guidance for how to conduct a risk assessment of their potential exposure.
- If an employee is confirmed to have COVID-19, employers should inform fellow employees of their possible exposure to COVID-19 in the workplace but maintain confidentiality as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Employees exposed to a co-worker with confirmed COVID-19 should refer to CDC guidance for how to conduct a risk assessment of their potential exposure.
Planning for a Possible COVID-19 Outbreak
The severity of illness or how many people will fall ill from COVID-19 is unknown at this time. If there is evidence of a COVID-19 outbreak in the U.S., employers should plan to respond in a flexible way to varying levels of severity and be prepared to refine their business response plans as needed. The CDC and its partners will monitor national and international data on the severity of illness caused by COVID-19and make additional recommendations as needed.
Employers should consider how to decrease the spread of COVID-19 in their workplace. They should identify and communicate their objectives, which may include one or more of the following: (a) reducing transmission among staff, (b) protecting people who are at higher risk for adverse health complications, (c) maintaining business operations, and (d) minimizing adverse effects on other entities in their supply chains. Some key considerations are:
- Disease severity (i.e., number of people who are sick, hospitalization and death rates) in the community where the business is located.
- Impact of disease on employees who are vulnerable and may be at higher risk for adverse COVID-19 complications. Inform employees some people may be at higher risk for serious illness, such as older adults and people of any age who have underlying medical conditions.
- Prepare for increased numbers of employee absences due to illness, family members with the disease, and closures of early childhood programs and K-12 schools due to high levels of absenteeism or illness.
- Employers should plan to monitor and respond to absenteeism at the workplace. Implement plans to continue essential business functions in case of higher than usual absenteeism.
- Cross-train personnel to perform essential functions so the workplace can operate even if key staff members are absent.
- Assess essential functions and the reliance others and the community have on your services or products. Be prepared to change your business practices if needed to maintain critical operations (e.g., identify alternative suppliers, prioritize customers, or temporarily suspend some of your operations).
- Employers with more than one business location should provide local managers with the authority to take appropriate actions outlined in their business infectious disease outbreak response plan based on the condition in each locality.
- Coordination with state and local public health officials is encouraged so timely and accurate information can guide appropriate responses in each location where operations exist. Since the intensity of an outbreak may differ according to geographic location, local public health officials will issue guidance specific to their communities.
Important Considerations for Creating an Infectious Disease Outbreak Response Plan
Employers should be ready to implement strategies to protect their workforce from COVID-19 while ensuring continuity of operations. During a COVID-19 outbreak, sick employees should stay home and away from the workplace, respiratory etiquette and hand hygiene should be encouraged, and cleaning of commonly touched surfaces should be performed regularly.
- Ensure the plan is flexible and involve employees in developing and reviewing the plan.
- Conduct a focused discussion or exercise using the plan, to learn ahead of time whether the plan has gaps or problems to be corrected.
- Share the plan with employees and explain what human resources policies, workplace and leave flexibilities, and pay and benefits will be available to them.
- Share best practices with other businesses in the community (especially those in your supply chain), chambers of commerce, and associations to improve community response efforts.
Recommendations for an Infectious Disease Outbreak Response Plan
- Identify possible work-related exposure and health risks to your employees. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has additional information on protecting workers from potential exposures to COVID-19.
- Review human resources policies to ensure policies and practices are consistent with public health recommendations and existing state and federal workplace laws (for more information on employer responsibilities, visit the U.S. Department of Labor’s and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s websites).
- Explore whether you can establish policies and practices, such as flexible worksites (e.g., telecommuting) and flexible work hours (e.g., staggered shifts) to increase the physical distance among employees and between employees and others if state and local public health authorities recommend the use of social distancing strategies. For employees who are ill and can telework, supervisors should encourage them to stay home until symptoms are completely resolved. Ensure the availability of information technology and infrastructure necessary to support multiple employees who may be able to work from home.
- Identify essential business functions, essential jobs or roles, and critical elements within your supply chains (e.g., raw materials, suppliers, subcontractor services/products, and logistics) required to maintain business operations. Plan for how your business will operate if there is increasing absenteeism or these supply chains are interrupted.
- Set up authorities, triggers, and procedures for activating and terminating the company’s infectious disease outbreak response plan, altering business operations (e.g., changing or closing operations), and transferring business knowledge to key employees. Work closely with your local public health officials to identify these triggers.
- Plan to minimize exposure between employees and between employees and the public, if public health officials call for social distancing.
- Establish a process to communicate information to employees and business partners on your infectious disease outbreak response plans and latest COVID-19 information. Anticipate employee fear, anxiety, rumors, and misinformation, and plan communications accordingly.
- In some communities, early childhood programs and K-12 schools may be dismissed, particularly if COVID-19 worsens. Determine how you will operate if absenteeism spikes from increases in sick employees, those who stay home to care for sick family members, and those who must stay home to watch their children if schools are closed. Businesses and other employers should prepare to institute flexible workplace and leave policies for these employees.
- Local conditions will influence decisions public health officials make regarding community-level strategies; employers should take the time now to learn about plans in place in each community where they have a business.
- If there is evidence of a U.S. COVID-19 outbreak, consider canceling non-essential business travel per CDC travel guidance.
- Travel restrictions may be enacted by other countries that may limit the ability of employees to return home if they become sick while on travel status.
- Consider cancelling large work-related meetings or events.
- Engage state and local public health departments to confirm channels of communication and methods for dissemination of local outbreak information. When working with your local public health department, check their available hours.
Last Updated: 6/17/2020