Hepatitis A

As of March 20, 2019, IDPH is reporting a hepatitis A outbreak comprised of 45 confirmed cases that are not associated with international travel and are not foodborne related.  The majority of cases are among individuals at high risk for infection--including men who have sex with men (MSM), homeless individuals, and/or those who use drugs.  Most of the outbreak cases are among individuals who use illicit drugs and the majority have been hospitalized.  Updates will be provided weekly on Wednesday afternoons.   

 

Illinois Hepatitis A Outbreak Cases
as of March 20, 2019*
Number of Cases 48
Demographics
Age Range 20-63
Average Age 38
Median Age 39
Male 34 (69.4%)
Female 15 (30.6%)
Hospitalizations 31 (63.3%)
Deaths 0
Risk Factors
Co-Infection with Hepatitis C 8 (16.3%)
Co-Infection with Hepatitis B 4 (8.2%)
Co-Infection with HIV 3 (6.1%)
Reports Illicit Drug Use 31 (63.3%)
MSM 10 (29.4%)
Homeless/Insecure Housing 3 (6.1%)

 
* Numbers are subject to change 
 

Confirmed Cases Meeting the Illinois Hepatitis A Outbreak Case Definition
County Number of Cases*
Champaign 3
Cook (Chicago) 4
Cook (suburban) 4
Crawford 1
Douglas 1
Edgar 17
Ford 2
McLean 4
Peoria 1
Tazewell 2
Union 2
Vermilion 6
Will 2
Total Cases 48


 

Since March 2017, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has identified multiple hepatitis A outbreaks. States bordering Illinois - Indiana, Kentucky, and Missouri - have reported outbreaks. To protect Illinois' residents, IDPH, in partnership with local health departments, is offering FREE hepatitis A vaccines to those individuals most at risk — including persons who use injection and non-injection drugs, men who have sexual contact with men, and/or persons who are homeless.

 


What is hepatitis A?
What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?
How is hepatitis A transmitted?
What are the risk factors for hepatitis A?
How can you prevent hepatitis A?
How is hepatitis A treated?
Who should you talk to about a hepatitis A vaccine?
What can health care providers do about hepatitis A?
What has IDPH done about hepatitis A?


What is hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable, infectious liver disease caused by the hepatitis A virus. It is passed easily from one person to another through food, water, drug use, and sex. It can range from a mild illness lasting a few weeks to a severe illness lasting several months. Hepatitis A is a self-limiting disease that does not cause chronic infection. 

What are the symptoms of hepatitis A?

Symptoms of hepatitis A include:

  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Abdominal pain
  • Dark urine
  • Clay-colored poop
  • Joint pain
  • Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)

How is hepatitis A transmitted?

Hepatitis A usually spreads when a person unknowingly ingests the virus from objects, food, or drinks contaminated by small, undetected amounts of stool from an infected person. Hepatitis A can also spread from close personal contact with an infected person such as through sex or caring for someone who is ill.

What are the risk factors for hepatitis A?

Although anyone can get hepatitis A, certain groups have a higher risk, such as:

  • People with direct contact with someone who has hepatitis A
  • Men who have sexual contact with men
  • People who are homeless
  • People who use drugs, both injection and non-injection drugs
  • People who are incarcerated

How can you prevent hepatitis A?

The best way to prevent hepatitis A is through vaccination. The hepatitis A vaccine is a two-dose series, although one dose will still provide a significant amount of protection. Practicing good hand hygiene also prevents the spread of hepatitis A.

How is hepatitis A treated?

Unvaccinated individuals with recent exposure should receive the hepatitis A vaccine or a shot of immune globulin to prevent severe illness. There is no treatment for hepatitis A aside from treating symptoms through rest, fluids and adequate nutrition.

Who should you talk to about a hepatitis A vaccine?

If you are at a higher risk for contracting hepatitis A, talk with your health care provider about vaccination. 

Alternatively, IDPH is working with 37 local health departments around the state covering 40 counties to make hepatitis A vaccine more readily available.  IDPH has requested a large number of hepatitis A vaccines from the CDC.  That vaccine is being delivered to numerous local health departments across Illinois to be available for free or at a reduced cost for people at the greatest risk of becoming infected.

Do you or someone you know fit into one of these groups?

  • Use drugs or is a close contact to someone who uses drugs
  • Homeless or a close contact to someone who is homeless
  • A man who has sex with men or a close contact to a man who has sex with men
  • In treatment or counseling for substance abuse
  • Receiving drug substitution and/or drug court
  • Works or has been detained in a jail or a detention center

If YES to any of the above please ask about being vaccinated against Hepatitis A today.  You may be eligible for a free to low cost hepatitis A vaccine.   

Participating local health departments and clinics

Local Health Department or Clinic County Phone Number
Adams County Health Department Adams 217-222-8440
Boone County Health Department Boone 815-544-2951
CCHHS - Robbins Cook 708-293-2400
Champaign-Urbana Health District Champaign 217-352-7961
Christian County Health Department Christian 217-824-4113
Clark County Health Department Clark 217-382-4207
Coles County Health Department Coles 217-348-0530
Crawford County Health Department Crawford 618-544-8798
Cumberland County Health Department Cumberland 217-849-3211
Dewitt-Piatt County Health Department Dewitt & Piatt 217-935-3427
DuPage County Health Department DuPage 630-682-7400
East Side Health District St. Clair 618-874-4713
Edgar County Health Department Edgar 217-465-2212
Fayette County Health Department Fayette 618-283-1044
Ford County Health Department Ford 217-379-9281
Franklin-Williamson Health Department Franklin & Williamson 618-993-8111
Grundy County Health Department Grundy 815-941-3113
Jackson County Health Department Jackson 618-684-3143
Jasper County Health Department Jasper 618-783-4436
Jersey County Health Department Jersey 618-498-9565
Kane County Health Department Kane 630-208-3801
Kankakee County Health Department Kankakee 815-802-9400
Knox County Health Department Knox 309-344-2224
Lake County Health Department Lake 847-377-8000
LaSalle County Health Department LaSalle 815-433-3366
Lawrence County Health Department Lawrence 618-943-3302
Lee County Health Department Lee 815-284-3371
Macon County Health Department Macon 217-423-6988
Macoupin County Health Department Macoupin 217-854-3223
Madison County Health Department Madison 618-692-8954
McHenry County Health Department McHenry 815-334-4510
McLean County Health Department McLean 309-888-5450
Peoria City/County Health Department Peoria 309-679-6000
Pike County Health Department Pike 217-285-4407
Sangamon County Health Department Sangamon 217-535-3100
Southern 7 CHD - Alexander Alexander 618-634-2297
Southern 7 CHD - Johnson Johnson 618-634-2297
Southern 7 CHD - Massac Massac 618-634-2297
Southern 7 CHD - Pulaski Pulaski 618-634-2297
Southern 7 CHD - Union Union 618-634-2297
St. Clair County Health Department St. Clair 618-233-7703
Stephenson County Health Department Stephenson 815-235-8271
Stickney Public Health Department Cook 708-424-9200
Tazewell County Health Department Tazewell 309-925-5511
Vermilion County Health Department Vermilion 217-431-2662
Wabash County Health Department Wabash 618-263-3773
Whiteside County Health Department Whiteside 815-626-2230
Will County Health Department Will 815-727-8485
Winnebago County Health Departmentt Winnebago 815-720-4000

 

What can health care providers do about hepatitis A?

If health care providers identify any suspected cases of HAV, especially within these high-risk groups, it is important to confirm cases with serologic testing (IgM) and promptly report them to your local health department (LHD).

The HAV vaccine is safe, and highly effective. To prevent hepatitis A, CDC recommends the following groups be vaccinated for HAV:

  • All children at age 1 year
  • Travelers to countries that have high rates of hepatitis A
  • Family members/caregivers of recent adoptees from countries where HAV is common
  • Men who have sexual contact with other men
  • Users of injection and non-injection illegal drugs
  • People with chronic (lifelong) liver diseases, such as hepatitis B or C
  • People who are treated with clotting-factor concentrates
  • People who work with infected animals or in a HAV research laboratory

Recently, ACIP voted unanimously to add “homelessness” as an additional indication for ACIP-recommended HAV vaccination (1). We recommend all providers screen their patients and provide HAV vaccine when indicated. While two doses are recommended to complete the series, even one dose provides nearly 95% immunity for at least several years

What has IDPH done about hepatitis A?

In the fall of 2017, the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) issued a memo regarding multiple outbreaks of hepatitis A in the U.S. So far in 2018, many of these outbreaks are still ongoing and additional outbreaks have been reported in several states such as Indiana, Michigan and Kentucky. These outbreaks are predominantly occurring in the homeless populations and in persons who use injection and non-injection drugs (IDU), along with close contacts of both groups. Additional outbreak clusters have also been identified in men who have sex with other men (MSM) and persons who are or have recently been incarcerated. On June 5, 2018, IDPH sent a memo to local health departments and medical providers encouraging the continuation of testing, reporting and vaccination of populations at risk for Hepatitis A. 

IDPH Press Releases

Five Cases of Hepatitis A in Illinois (12/4/18)

Hepatitis A PSA (9/10/18)

Hepatitis A Cases are Increasing (7/27/18)